Comment fonctionne la compression de fichier?

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La compression de fichier est une partie essentielle du fonctionnement du Web. Cela nous permet de transférer des fichiers qui prendraient autrement trop de bande passante et de temps. Chaque fois que vous accédez à des fichiers ZIP ou affichez des images JPEG, vous profitez de la compression de fichier..

Ainsi, à un moment donné, vous avez probablement déjà posé une question: comment fonctionne la compression de fichier? Voici un aperçu de base du fonctionnement de la compression.

Que signifie compression??

En termes simples, la compression de fichiers (ou compression de données) consiste à réduire la taille d'un fichier tout en préservant les données d'origine. Cela permet au fichier d’occuper moins d’espace sur un périphérique de stockage, tout en facilitant le transfert sur Internet ou autrement..

Il est important de noter que la compression n'est pas infinie. Bien que la compression d'un fichier dans un fichier ZIP réduise sa taille, vous ne pouvez pas continuer à compresser le fichier pour réduire davantage la taille à zéro..

Généralement, la compression de fichier est divisée en deux types principaux: sans perte et sans perte. Regardons comment les deux fonctionnent à leur tour.

Fonctionnement de la compression de fichier: compression avec perte

La compression avec perte réduit la taille du fichier en supprimant des informations inutiles. C'est plus courant dans les formats image, vidéo et audio, où une représentation parfaite du média source n'est pas nécessaire. De nombreux formats courants pour ces types de support utilisent la compression avec perte; MP3 et JPEG sont deux exemples populaires.

Un MP3 ne contient pas toutes les informations audio de l'enregistrement original. Il émet plutôt certains sons que les humains ne peuvent pas entendre. De toute façon, vous ne les remarqueriez pas, donc supprimer ces informations donne une taille de fichier plus petite et ne présente pratiquement aucun inconvénient..

De même, les images JPEG suppriment les parties non vitales des images. Par exemple, dans une image contenant un ciel bleu, la compression JPEG peut modifier tous les pixels du ciel en une ou deux nuances de bleu, au lieu d'utiliser des dizaines de nuances différentes..

Cependant, plus vous compressez lourdement un fichier, plus la perte de qualité devient perceptible. Vous avez probablement déjà expérimenté cela avec des fichiers MP3 boueux téléchargés sur YouTube. Par exemple, comparez cette piste musicale de haute qualité:

Avec cette version fortement compressée de la même chanson:

La compression avec perte est appropriée lorsqu'un fichier contient plus d'informations que nécessaire pour vos besoins. Par exemple, disons que vous avez un énorme fichier image RAW. Bien que vous souhaitiez probablement conserver cette qualité lorsque vous imprimez l'image sur une grande bannière, il est inutile de télécharger le fichier RAW sur Facebook..

L'image contient tellement de données qu'il est impossible de percevoir sur les sites de médias sociaux. La compression de l'image au format JPEG de haute qualité supprime certaines informations, mais l'image a presque la même apparence à l'œil nu. Voir notre comparaison des formats d'image populaires JPEG, GIF ou PNG? Types de fichiers d'image expliqués et testés JPEG, GIF ou PNG? Types de fichiers d'image expliqués et testés Connaissez-vous les différences entre les fichiers JPEG, GIF, PNG et les autres types de fichiers d'image? Savez-vous quand vous devriez utiliser l'un au lieu de l'autre? Ne craignez rien, MakeUseOf explique tout! pour un regard plus profond sur cette.

Compression avec pertes en utilisation générale

Comme nous l'avons mentionné, la compression avec perte est idéale pour la plupart des supports. Pour cette raison, il est essentiel pour des entreprises telles que Spotify et Netflix, qui transmettent en permanence d’énormes quantités d’informations. Réduire autant que possible la taille du fichier tout en préservant la qualité rend son fonctionnement plus efficace. Pouvez-vous imaginer si chaque vidéo YouTube a été stockée et transmise dans son format original non compressé?

Mais la compression avec pertes ne fonctionne pas aussi bien pour les fichiers où toutes les informations sont cruciales. Par exemple, utiliser une compression avec perte sur un fichier texte ou une feuille de calcul aurait pour résultat une sortie tronquée. Vous ne pouvez vraiment rien jeter sans nuire gravement au produit final.

Lorsque vous enregistrez dans un format avec perte, vous pouvez souvent définir le niveau de qualité. Par exemple, de nombreux éditeurs d’images disposent d’un curseur permettant de choisir la qualité d’un fichier JPEG de 0 à 100..

Une économie de 90 ou 80% réduit considérablement la taille du fichier, sans grande différence pour les yeux. Mais enregistrer dans une qualité médiocre ou enregistrer plusieurs fois le même fichier dans un format avec perte le dégradera.

Vous pouvez voir ci-dessous un exemple (cliquez sur l'image pour l'agrandir). À gauche, l'image d'origine téléchargée à partir de Pixabay au format JPEG. L'image du milieu est le résultat de l'enregistrement au format JPEG à 50% de qualité. Et l'image la plus à droite montre l'image d'origine enregistrée à la place au format JPEG de qualité 10%..

Au lieu d'afficher les 10 blocs, nous pouvons supprimer tous les couleurs sauf une. Ensuite, si nous utilisons des nombres pour indiquer le nombre de briques de chaque couleur, nous avons représenté exactement le même élément d’information en utilisant beaucoup moins de briques. Au lieu de 10 briques, nous n’avons plus besoin que de trois.

Ceci est une illustration simple de la façon dont la compression sans perte est possible. Il stocke les mêmes informations de manière plus efficace en supprimant la redondance. Considérons un fichier réel, où la chaîne ci-dessous:

mmmmmuuuuuuuoooooooooooooo

Pouvez “compresse” à la forme suivante, beaucoup plus courte:

m5u7o12

Cela nous permet d’utiliser sept caractères au lieu de 24 pour représenter les mêmes données, ce qui représente une économie considérable..

Compression sans perte en utilisation quotidienne

Comme nous l'avons mentionné ci-dessus, la compression sans perte est importante dans les cas où vous ne pouvez supprimer aucun fichier d'origine. Si vous avez été curieux de savoir comment fonctionnent les fichiers ZIP, voici la réponse.

Lorsque vous créez un fichier ZIP à partir d'un programme exécutable sous Windows, il utilise la compression sans perte. La compression du fichier ZIP est un moyen plus efficace de stocker le programme, mais lorsque vous décompressez-le (décompressez), toutes les informations d'origine sont présentes. Si vous utilisez une compression avec perte pour compresser les exécutables, la version décompressée serait endommagée et inutilisable..

Les formats courants sans perte incluent PNG pour les images, FLAC pour l’audio et ZIP. Les formats vidéo sans perte sont rares, car ils occuperaient énormément d'espace.

Quand utiliser la compression avec perte ou sans perte

Maintenant que nous avons examiné les deux formes de compression de fichier, vous vous demandez peut-être quand vous devriez utiliser l'une ou l'autre. En fait, il n’existe pas de “mieux” forme de compression-tout dépend de ce que vous utilisez les fichiers pour.

En règle générale, vous devez utiliser la compression sans perte lorsque vous souhaitez obtenir une copie parfaite du document source, et la compression avec perte dans les cas où une copie imparfaite est suffisante. Regardons un autre exemple pour voir comment ils peuvent travailler en harmonie.

Supposons que vous veniez de déterrer votre ancienne collection de CD et que vous souhaitiez la numériser. Comment convertir des CD, des cassettes et des mini-disques en MP3 Comment convertir des CD, des cassettes et des mini-disques en MP3 ou des disques vinyle dont vous voulez vous débarrasser, il est temps de numériser votre collection. Voici tout ce que vous devez savoir. vous avez donc toute votre musique sur votre ordinateur. Lorsque vous extrayez vos CD, il est logique d'utiliser un format tel que FLAC, qui est sans perte. Cela vous permet d’avoir sur votre ordinateur une copie originale de la qualité du CD original..

Plus tard, vous voudrez peut-être mettre de la musique sur votre téléphone ou sur un vieux lecteur MP3 afin de pouvoir l'écouter à tout moment. Vous ne vous souciez probablement pas de la qualité parfaite de votre musique, vous pouvez donc convertir les fichiers FLAC en MP3. Comment convertir FLAC en MP3 gratuitement Comment convertir FLAC en MP3 gratuitement Avez-vous besoin de convertir des fichiers audio FLAC en MP3? Ensuite, voici les applications gratuites que vous devez tester sur Windows, Mac, Linux et le Web. . Cela vous donne un fichier audio qui est toujours parfaitement écoutable, mais prend moins de place sur votre appareil mobile. La qualité des fichiers MP3 convertis à partir du FLAC sera aussi bonne que si vous aviez créé un fichier MP3 compressé à partir du CD original..

Le type de données représenté dans un fichier peut également déterminer le type de compression le mieux adapté. Comme les images PNG utilisent la compression sans perte, elles offrent des tailles de fichier réduites pour les images avec beaucoup d'espace uniforme, comme les captures d'écran. Cependant, vous remarquerez que les PNG prennent beaucoup plus de place lorsqu'ils représentent le fouillis de couleurs sur des photos réelles..

Problèmes lors de la compression de fichier

Comme nous l’avons vu, la conversion de formats sans perte en fichiers avec perte est acceptable, tout comme la conversion d’un format sans perte en un autre. Cependant, vous ne devriez jamais convertir un format avec pertes en sans perte, et vous devriez vous méfier de la conversion d'un format avec pertes en un autre..

La conversion de formats avec perte en sans perte est simplement un gaspillage d’espace. Rappelez-vous que les formats avec perte rejettent les données; il est impossible de récupérer ces données.

Disons que vous avez un fichier MP3 de 3 Mo. La conversion de ce format au format FLAC pourrait donner lieu à un fichier de 30 Mo, mais ces 30 Mo contiennent les sons exacts produits par le MP3 beaucoup plus petit. La reconversion en un format sans perte ne “récupérer” l'information que la compression MP3 a jeté.

Enfin, comme mentionné précédemment, la conversion d'un format avec perte en un autre (ou l'enregistrement répété dans le même format) dégradera davantage la qualité. Chaque fois que vous appliquez la compression avec perte, vous perdez plus de détails. Cela devient de plus en plus perceptible jusqu'à ce que le fichier soit en ruine.

Comment fonctionne la compression? Maintenant tu sais

Nous avons examiné la compression sans perte et sans perte pour voir comment elle fonctionne. Vous savez maintenant qu'il est possible de stocker un fichier d'une taille inférieure à sa forme d'origine et comment choisir la méthode la mieux adaptée à vos besoins..

Bien sûr, les algorithmes qui déterminent quelles données sont rejetées dans les méthodes avec perte et comment mieux stocker les données redondantes en compression sans perte sont beaucoup plus compliqués que ce que nous avons expliqué ici. Il y a beaucoup plus à découvrir sur ce sujet si cela vous intéresse.

Vous avez essayé la compression sans perte et avez besoin d'envoyer quelque chose à un ami? Essayez ces moyens rapides pour transférer des fichiers volumineux en ligne. 5 Applications Web rapides et gratuites pour transférer des fichiers volumineux localement ou en ligne. 5 Applications Web rapides et gratuites pour transférer des fichiers volumineux localement ou en ligne. sont gratuits et efficaces. Vous n'aurez probablement besoin de rien d'autre. .




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